Friday, 27 October 2017

Overview On Monkeypox Disease

 
monkeypox disease outbreak

 

Key facts

  • Monkeypox is a rare disease that occurs primarily in remote parts of Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests.
  • The monkeypox virus can cause a fatal illness in humans and, although it is similar to human smallpox which has been eradicated, it is much milder.
  • The monkeypox virus is transmitted to people from various wild animals but has limited secondary spread through human-to-human transmission.
  • Typically, case fatality in monkeypox outbreaks has been between 1% and 10%, with most deaths occurring in younger age groups.
  • There is no treatment or vaccine available although prior smallpox vaccination was highly effective in preventing monkeypox as well.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms begin with fever, headache, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, and feeling tired. This is then followed by a rash that forms blisters and scabs over. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is around 10 days. The duration of symptoms is typically 2 to 5 weeks.

Transmission

Infection of index cases results from direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals. In Africa human infections have been documented through the handling of infected monkeys, Gambian giant rats and squirrels, with rodents being the major reservoir of the virus. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is a possible risk factor.
Secondary, or human-to-human, transmission can result from close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions, skin lesions of an infected person or objects recently contaminated by patient fluids or lesion materials. Transmission occurs primarily via droplet respiratory particles usually requiring prolonged face-to-face contact, which puts household members of active cases at greater risk of infection. Transmission can also occur by inoculation or via the placenta (congenital monkeypox). There is no evidence, to date, that person-to-person transmission alone can sustain monkeypox infections in the human population.



Treatment

Currently, there is no proven, safe treatment for monkeypox. The people who have been infected can be vaccinated up to 14 days after exposure.

Prevention

  Reduce or do not make contact with small mammals especially monkeys.
  Do not make contact with infected people.
  Go for checkup if aany of the symptoms are noticed
  Lastly, try to educate each other about the infection and also attend seminars or read more about the disease






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